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Growth forms or body forms
Fruticose lichens look like miniature tufted shrubs. They may be erect or draping. Foliose types are leaf-like and may be divided into lobes. Crustose lichens look like paint stains, commonly black, white or yellow. The Fruticose types include lichens with a stalk-like structure called a podetium. This stalk is so distinctive that it is easy for a beginner to identify the lichen as being in the group or genus Cladonia. For this reason I have included the Cladonia as a growth form. Click on the growth forms below and browse the alphabetic list. You can also use the Search facility to look for a particular lichen. All the lichens on this web site can be mapped on Biology.ie.