… by genus: Cladonia
Greek: Klados meaning branch. Cladonia are all fruticose lichens, but I have included them here as they have very distinctive stalks or podetia. All Cladonia begin life as a scaly thallus made from leaf-like scales or squamules. These are termed the primary squamules; the thallus is referred to as the primary thallus. Later the fruiting body develops as a stalk called the podetium. Podetia may develop secondary squamules, or a covering of soredia; sometimes they are smooth. They are always hollow and may or may not be branched. If apothecia are present, they are found on the tips or rims of the podetia. Many Cladonia do not have apothecia.